# Lecture 07

Require Import Bool.
Require Import ZArith.
Require Import IMPSyntax.
Require Import IMPSemantics.

## Pseudo Denotational Semantics

Here we're going to explore what's called "denoting" When we take a program and denote it, we simply give the meaning of the program in terms of something else
Here, we'll use the existing meaning of Coq to denote our programs
If we have a binary operation, the meaning of that binary operation is a coq function of type Z -> Z -> Z
Definition denote_binop (op: binop) : Z -> Z -> Z :=
exec_op op.

When we denote an expression, the meaning of it depends on the current heap Thus, the coq type of a denoted expresssion is heap -> Z
Fixpoint denote_expr (e: expr) : heap -> Z :=
match e with
| Int i =>
fun _ => i
| Var v =>
fun h => h v
| BinOp op e1 e2 =>
let f := denote_binop op in
let x := denote_expr e1 in
let y := denote_expr e2 in
fun h =>
f (x h) (y h)
end.

Let's play with denoting a few toy examples
Eval cbv in (denote_expr ("x" [+] "y")).
Eval cbv in ((denote_expr ("x" [+] "y")) empty).

Eval cbv in (denote_expr ("x" [+] 1)).
Eval cbv in ((denote_expr ("x" [+] 1)) empty).

Note that for expressions, essentially the only difference between denoting and interpreting is the stage at which the heap matters. When interpreting a program, we start with a heap and expression, and crawl over the expression tree with both. When denoting an expression, we crawl over the entire expression without the heap, giving meaning to the expression for all heaps Only afterwards do we derive meaning by providing a particular heap
Here we can prove that we denoted expressions correctly. We want the meaning to match up in all cases
Lemma denote_expr_interp_expr:
forall e h,
(denote_expr e) h = interp_expr h e.
Proof.
induction e; simpl; intros; auto.
unfold denote_binop. congruence.
Qed.

already connected interp_expr to eval, so now get denote connections "for free" Here we can show that our denotation function matches our evaluation relation
Lemma denote_expr_eval:
forall e h i,
(denote_expr e) h = i <-> eval h e i.
Proof.
intros. rewrite denote_expr_interp_expr.
split.
- apply interp_expr_eval.
- apply eval_interp_expr.
Qed.

Definition obind {A B: Type} (oa: option A) (f: A -> option B) : option B :=
match oa with
| None => None
| Some a => f a
end.

Here we give meaning to statements Note that this has type nat -> heap -> option heap instead of simply heap -> heap the nat will encode the amount of fuel we give to the program as the program could diverge the option encodes the fact that evaluation could fail though the only way to fail is running out of fuel careful to detect timeout (running out of fuel)!
Fixpoint denote_stmt (s: stmt) : nat -> heap -> option heap :=
match s with
| Nop =>
fun _ h => Some h
| Assign v e =>
let de := denote_expr e in
fun _ h => Some (update h v (de h))
| Seq e1 e2 =>
let d1 := denote_stmt e1 in
let d2 := denote_stmt e2 in
fun n h => obind (d1 n h) (d2 n)
| Cond e s =>
let de := denote_expr e in
let ds := denote_stmt s in
fun n h =>
if Z_eq_dec 0 (de h) then
Some h
else
ds n h
| While e s =>
let de := denote_expr e in
let ds := denote_stmt s in
fix loop n h :=
match n with
| O => None
| S m =>
if Z_eq_dec 0 (de h) then
Some h
else
obind (ds n h) (loop m)
end
end.

Theorem nat_strong_ind´ :
forall P : nat -> Prop,
P 0%nat ->
(forall n,
(forall m, (m <= n)%nat -> P m) -> P (S n)) ->
forall n, (forall m, (m <= n)%nat -> P m).
Proof.
induction n; intros.
- assert (m = 0%nat) by omega. subst. auto.
- assert ((m <= n)%nat \/ m = S n) by omega.
intuition. subst. auto.
Qed.

Lemma nat_strong_ind :
forall (P : nat -> Prop),
P 0%nat ->
(forall n, (forall m, (m <= n)%nat -> P m) -> P (S n)) ->
forall n, P n.
Proof.
intros.
eapply nat_strong_ind´; eauto.
Qed.

Here's what we might use for a different kind of induction on nats If we wanted to do different induction like we talked about in class This is what we might do
Lemma nat_parity_ind :
forall (P : nat -> Prop),
P 0%nat ->
P 1%nat ->
(forall n, P n -> P (S (S n))) ->
forall n, P n.
Proof.
induction n using nat_strong_ind; intros.
eauto.
destruct n. eauto.
eapply H1. eapply H2.
omega.
Qed.