CSE 461: Introduction to Computer Communication Networks, Winter 2017
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    Project 1: Sockets API
Out: Monday, January 9
Due: Sunday, January 22, 11 PM
Turnin: Online
Teams: Teams of 2

Project Overview.

This project will introduce you to using the sockets API in the C or Java language (you are not limited to those two languages although we can provide more help if you use Java). This project should be done by groups of 2. There are 2 parts to this project though you can start with either, especially if you are blocked on either part.

Part 1 Overview.

In part 1 you will create a client application that will communicate with a server using a specific protocol. Your client's task is to follow the protocol as closely as possible and to extract a secret from the server for each stage of the protocol. The server's task is to validate that the client is following the protocol -- any deviation of the client from the protocol will cause the server to close the connection. The client and the server will communicate over UDP as well as TCP sockets. What follows is a thorough description of the protocol, broken up into stages (a,b,c,d). Remember, you must follow this protocol exactly. If you find any problems with this protocol description, or have further questions, do not hesitate to contact the TAs or the instructor.

Protocol.

The server will run on the host on attu2.cs.washington.edu and attu3.cs.washington.edu, listening for incoming packets on UDP port 12235. The server expects to receive and will only send:
  • payload that has a header (see below)
  • data in network-byte order (big-endian order)
  • 4-byte integers that are unsigned (uint32_t), or 2-byte integers that are unsigned (uint16_t)
  • characters that are 1-byte long (Note: in Java a char is 2-byte long)
  • strings that are a sequence of characters ending with the character '\0'
  • packets that are aligned on a 4-byte boundary (that is, a packets must be padded until its length is divisible by 4)
The server will close any open sockets to the client and/or fail to respond to the client if:
  • unexpected number of buffers have been received
  • unexpected payload, or length of packet or length of packet payload has been received
  • the server does not receive any packets from the client for 3 seconds
Every payload (TCP and UDP) sent to the server and sent by the server must have a packet header. This header must be located in the leading bytes of the transmission, prefixed to the payload. The header has a constant length of 12-bytes. The first four bytes of the header contain the payload length of the packet (excluding any padding to byte-align the packet). The next four bytes contain the secret of the previous stage of the protocol, psecret. The next two bytes contain an integer step number of the current protocol stage. For example, for step c1, the header's first four bytes will contain the length of the packet, the next four bytes will contain secretB, and the following two bytes will be set to the value 1. Note: for Client side, the step number will always be 1 since you are doing step 1 at each stage while the server is doing step 2. For stage a, psecret is defined as 0. The last two bytes of the header should be set to an integer representation of the last 3 digits of (one of) your student number. This 12-byte header does not count towards the length of the payload (which is to be 4-byte aligned). Throughout this part 1 description we will use diagrams such as the following to describe packet formats; here is the format of the packet header for part 1:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                          payload_len                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            psecret                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|              step             |   last 3 digits of student #  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The numbers at the top indicate the bit number in rows of 32 bits, and fields are separated by +- and | marks. The header is omitted from the following packet diagrams to eliminate redundancy, but remember that every packet has to have the header above.

STAGE a:
Step a1. The client sends a single UDP packet containing the string "hello world" without the quotation marks to attu2.cs.washington.edu (referred to as the 'server') on port 12235:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|                          hello world                          |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Note: 'hello world' is not actually 4 bytes.

Step a2. The server responds with a UDP packet containing four integers: num, len, udp_port, secretA:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              num                              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              len                              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            udp_port                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretA                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


STAGE b:
Step b1. The client reliably transmits num UDP packets to the server on port udp_port. Each of these 'data' packets has length len+4 (remember that each packet's entire payload must be byte-aligned to a 4-byte boundary). The first 4-bytes of each data packet payload must be integer identifying the packet. The first packet should have this identifier set to 0, while the last packet should have its counter set to num-1. The rest of the payload bytes in the packet (len of them) must be 0s. The packet header length does not count towards len:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           packet_id                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|                     payload of length len                     |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

For each received data packet, the server will acknowledge (ack) that packet by replying with an 'ack' packet that contains as the payload the identifier of the acknowledged packet:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                        acked_packet_id                        |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

 
To complete this step, the client must receive ack packets from the server for all num packets that it generates. To do so, the client resends those packets that the server does not acknowledge. The client should use a retransmission interval of at least .5 seconds.

Step b2. Once the server receives all num packets, it sends a UDP packet containing two integers: a TCP port number, secretB.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            tcp_port                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretB                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


STAGE c:
Step c1. The client opens a TCP connection to the server on port tcp_port received from the server in step b2.

Step c2. The server sends three integers: num2, len2, secretC, and a character: c.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              num2                             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              len2                             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretC                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       c       |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

 
Note: If you receive 16 bytes as the payload_len, it's a mistake in our implementation so you can disregard that as it doesn't affect any of the later stages anyway. However don't make the same mistake in your part 2 stage c2.

STAGE d:
Step d1. The clients sends num2 payloads, each payload of length len2, and each payload containing all bytes set to the character c.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|           payload of length len2 filled with char c           |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

 
Step d2. The server responds with one integer payload: secretD:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretD                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


Part 2 Overview.

In part 2, you will be writing a web server that can handle clients communicating in a specific protocol. Your server's task is to verify whether the client adheres to the protocol and send a response only to the valid client. Your server should handle multiple clients at a time.

Protocol.

We will follow the same protocol as part 1 and hence you can use your client from part 1 to verify your server. The server should receive and send only:
  • payload that has a header (see below)
  • data in network-byte order (big-endian order)
  • 4-byte integers that are unsigned (uint32_t), or 2-byte integers that are unsigned (uint16_t)
  • characters that are 1-byte long
  • strings that are a sequence of characters ending with the character '\0'
  • packets that are aligned on a 4-byte boundary (that is, a packets must be padded until its length is divisible by 4)
Every payload (TCP and UDP) sent to the server and sent by the server must have a packet header. This header must be located in the leading bytes of the transmission, prefixed to the payload. The header has a constant length of 12-bytes. The first four bytes of the header contain the payload length of the packet (excluding any padding to byte-align the packet). The next four bytes contain the secret of the previous stage of the protocol psecret. The next two bytes contain an integer step number of the current protocol stage. For example, for step c2, the header's first four bytes will contain the length of the packet, the next four bytes will contain secretB, and the following two bytes will be set to the value 2. For stage a, psecret is defined as 0. The last two bytes of the header are should be set to an integer representation of the last 3 digits of your student number. This 12-byte header does not count towards the length of the packet (which is to be 4-byte aligned). Throughout this part 2 description we will use diagrams such as the following to describe packet formats; here is the format of the packet header for part 2 (the same as part 1):

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                          payload_len                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            psecret                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|              step             |   last 3 digits of student #  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The numbers at the top indicate the bit number in rows of 32 bits, and fields are separated by +- and | marks. The header is omitted from the following packet diagrams to eliminate redundancy, but remember that every packet has to have the header above.

Server:
  1. The server should start listening on port 12235 (Do not run your server on attu2 on the same port as our server is running here).
  2. The server should handle multiple clients at a time. This can be done using threading. Spawn a seperate thread for every new client and kill the thread when the client finishes.
  3. The server should verify the header of every packet received and close any open sockets to the client and/or fail to respond to the client if:
    • unexpected number of buffers have been received
    • unexpected payload, or length of packet or length of packet payload has been received
    • the server does not receive any packets from the client for 3 seconds
    • the server does not receive the correct secret
  4. The Server should respond to the client in four stages.In each stage, the server should randomly generate a secret to be sent to the client.

STAGE a:
Step a1. The client sends a single UDP packet containing the string "hello world" without the quotation marks to your server

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|                          hello world                          |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Note: 'hello world' is not actually 4 bytes.

The server should verify the payload and respond with a UDP packet containing four integers: num, len, udp_port, secretA. All these numbers should be randomly generated.Then your server must wait for the client's packet at udp_port.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              num                              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              len                              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            udp_port                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretA                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


STAGE b:
Step b1. The client will transmit num UDP packets to the server on port udp_port.The server has to verify that
  • Each of these 'data' packets has length len+4 (remember that each packet's entire payload must be byte-aligned to a 4-byte boundary).
  • The first 4-bytes of each data packet payload is the integer identifying the packet. The first packet should have this identifier set to 0, while the last packet should have its counter set to num-1.
  • The rest of the payload bytes in the packet (len of them) is 0s.
  • The packet header length does not count towards len.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           packet_id                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|                     payload of length len                     |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

For each received data packet, the server randomly decides whether to acknowledge (ack) that packet by replying with an 'ack' packet that contains as the payload the identifier of the acknowledged packet:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                        acked_packet_id                        |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The server should receive the same packet again if it decides to not send an ack.(Make sure your server does not send an ack atleast once for the entire transaction). This step will complete after the server receives num packets correctly in order.

Step b2. Once the server receives all num packets, it should send a UDP packet containing two integers: a TCP port number, secretB. Now the server should wait for a TCP connection from the client at TCP port number.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            tcp_port                           |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretB                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


STAGE c:
Step c1. The client will open a TCP connection to the server on port tcp_port received from your server in step b2.

Step c2. Your server should then send three integers: num2, len2, secretC, and a character: c.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              num2                             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                              len2                             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretC                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       c       |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


STAGE d:
Step d1. The clients sends num2 payloads, each payload of length len2, and each payload containing all bytes set to the character c.

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
|           payload of length len2 filled with char c           |
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Step d2. The server should respond with one integer payload: secretD:

 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                            secretD                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


Due Date.

The project is due on Subday, January 22st at 11 PM. One submission per group.

Programming details.

Your client and server program must compile from the terminal using GNU C Compiler (gcc) or Java (or the compiler/intrepreter of your language of choice) and run on the undergraduate server attu.cs.washington.edu or the UW CSE VM.

Turnin.

For part 1:
  • The source code of your client program
  • A readme containing:
    • The name and netid of each member of the group
    • The sequence of server secrets that were received by your client program
    • Instructions on how to compile and run your code

For part 2:
  • The source code of your server program
  • A readme containing:
    • The name and netid of each member of the group
    • Instructions on how to compile and run your code

Please put each part in different folder (part1/ and part2/ under root would be fine) and collect all the materials in a single .tar file that includes all the necessary files, and hand it in using the Dropbox on catalyst.

Grading.

Partial credit will be given for each of the completed stages of the protocol for both parts of the project.
For part 1 the number of secrets that you were able to extract from the server is an indicator of your partial credit score. However, your code will be compiled and re-run against the server. If you were able to extract secrets from the server, your code must compile and be able to extract as many secrets as you have handed in with your assignment.
For part 2 your code will be compiled and re-run with your client.

Computer Science & Engineering
University of Washington
Box 352350
Seattle, WA  98195-2350
(206) 543-1695 voice, (206) 543-2969 fax
[comments to kheimerl at cs.washington.edu]