Distributed Transaction Application in Java or C#

Last Modified : 03/27/2007

ProjectDescription

The purpose of this project is to gain an understanding of the interaction between various components of a TP system, and the implementation issues involved. Your goal is to construct a distributed application in Java or C# that implements a travel reservation system. Students will work in pairs.

The project is organized as a sequence of steps that iteratively add components and system structure, working toward the ultimate goal of a multiple client, multiple server, scalable system. The steps are not all of comparable difficulty, and therefore should not be used as weekly milestones. Effort required is also not proportional to the length of the specification, so long specs might be easier to implement than short ones. Many of the individual blocks and methods can be done in parallel.

We provide a lock manager, parts of the basic application, and a basic test script, to ensure minimal functionality. It is your responsibility to augment the tests (using the standard interfaces) to make certain that your service resists failure.

Your options for software development environment are the following:

        Sun's JDK. This is relatively labor-intensive, but RMI is supported natively. With Sun's JDK you can use Windows or Unix machines. Recommended reading for novice users of Java: http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/rmi/

        The Microsoft .NET Framework SDK or Visual Studio .Net with the C# language, using SOAP for remote procedure calls. The implementation effort is lower than for Java, since support for distribution is more built-in.

 We expect you to hand in two milestone reports of your progress, which will be reviewed but not graded.††††

Provided Components

1. We have provided a lock manager package/class. It supports the following operations:

         lock(Xid, thingBeingLocked, read|write) throws DeadlockException

         unlockAll(Xid). Xid is an abbreviation for transaction identifier.

The lock manager handles deadlocks by a timeout mechanism. A failed (deadlocked) lock operation throws an exception. Lock managers are described in the textbook in Chapter 6, Section 2.

2. Reservation Application

There are four types of resources: flights, rooms, cars, and customers. For each type of resource, there are operations to add or remove units (e.g., addCars), reserve units (e.g., reserveCar), and query the state of units (e.g., queryCars, queryCarsPrice). The operations to be supported are outlined in the attached Java interface. We know these assumptions sacrifice verisimilitude, but they are rich enough to expose the problems to be addressed by this project.

Please read the code to understand the semantics of the basic operations. Hereís a quick summary: The data is stored in memory. There is only one airline (so a flight identifier is an integer), only one type of car, only one type of hotel room, and only one day for which units can be reserved. Since there is only one type of flight, car and hotel room, each of them has only one price. The net effect of { addCars(T1, ĎSan Diegoí, 4, $52); addCars(T2, ĎSan Diegoí, 7, $54); } adds 11 cars at $54, not 7 cars at $54 and 4 cars at $52. One can query for which reservations the customer holds and for how much the customer should be charged. Note that thereís no account payment feature.

Project Steps

1. Atomicity - Build a simple Resource Manager (RM) that supports atomicity. The simple RM implements transactions. That is, it supports the methods start, commit, and abort, and all data access (read/write) op≠erations are associated with a transaction. In the first few steps of the project, you can use one instance of the storage class for all four RM types. After that, you will need one storage instance for each RM type.

The RM stores the database in hash tables.  First, write a new transactional storage class that is generic enough to store resources on behalf of any or all of the four resource types.  The storage class implements read, write abort, and commit. Abort undoes all of a transaction's updates. Commit simply installs the transactionís updates so that other transactions can read them. Commit does not need to store the transactionís updated data on disk (that comes in Step 2 on Durability).

To implement atomicity, we recommend that you use shadowing: make a copy of the in-memory database; update it; and then to commit, update the database pointer for the active memory image so that it points to the updated copy. In step 2, this will be a disk image that will be copied, updated, and relinked (renamed). Shadowing is described in the lecture notes and in the textbook in Chapter 7, Section 6. For this step, it is enough to shadow records; page shadowing is considered extra credit.

Now rewrite the RM so that it uses the new storage class, in fact, so that all RM instances use the same storage instance. By making the RMs use the same storage instance, you avoid the need for two-phase commit. If you don't understand that comment, re-read the description of  two-phase commit in Chapter 1.

For verisimilitude, you might want to modify the make file so that it creates a .dll for the RM, instead of an .exe. (The ultimate goal, however, is to have the RMs run as separate processes, starting in Step 7.) That way, when you create RM instances, the instances will live in the callerís process. Thus, all three RMs will run in the same process, so you can think of it as a single server. This step is optional, since it just makes the model more realistic without changing the functionality of any component. Itís also optional whether the storage instance runs in this process or in a separate process.

In this step, the only failure to handle is an abort. Since the memory image is lost when the process terminates, this step doesnít need a recover() method.

The Technical Interface methods (located in ResourceManager.java and TP.cs respectively) are defined to make it easier to test for faults. The shutDown() method implies that the RM should shut down gracefully. In this case, that means cleaning up its files, so that the next time it starts up, it does not attempt to recover its state. The selfDestruct() method exists to allow failure generation between two disk writes. The idea is that it sets a counter of disk writes that will be executed successfully before the RM terminates. The RM will have to startup and recover from termination.

The system now looks like this:

2. Durability. Add persistence and recovery to the Resource Manager. All state is stored on disk. The disk image is updated when a transaction commits. The RM must implement a recover() method to restore its state from the state on disk and gracefully handle various exceptions, such as methods called with unknown (forgotten) transaction ids.  

The system now looks like this:

3. Lock Conversion - Modify the lock manager that so that it can convert locks, e.g.,

Lock(xid, foo, read); 
††/* read foo */ 
††Lock(xid, foo, write);
/* write foo ... plus error checking and exception handling...*/

Keep in mind that other transactions may have read locks on foo, so deadlock is possible. The main purpose of this step is to gain an understanding of the lock manager code.

The lock manager uses a hashtable for each lockmode, because the author thought it would lead to succinct code with few special cases. Feel free to rewrite it, if you don't like that choice of data structure.

4. Isolation. Add lock and unlock operations to the RM. That is, the RM should lock data appropriately for each transaction, and unlock data when the transaction commits or aborts. Test this implementation using multiple clients and a single resource manager. You might experiment with different locking granularities at this stage. There are several clients interacting with the single RM, so the system now looks like this:

†††††††††††††††††††

5. Implement a workflow controller (WC). This is called a Request Controller in the textbook. It is described in Chapter 1, Section 2, and in Chapter 3. The WC is a front-end so that (eventually) the location and partitioning of the RMís is not exposed to the client.To do this, the WC supports the same interface as the RM, plus the new method:

reserveItinerary(customer, flight_list, location, bCar, bRoom) method.

A customer has only one itinerary. The parameters of the reserveItinerary method are: customer, the customer id from newCustomer; flight_list, a vector of integer flight numbers; location, the place where rooms or cars are reserved; and bCar/bRoom, true if the customer wants a car/room reservation. Within this step, assume there is only one RM, and all methods except reserveItinerary are directly passed on to it. So the system looks like this:

For example, suppose the client asks the WC for a reservation on flights 435 and 534 and a rental car in St. Louis. To process this request, the WC starts a transaction, calls the RM to make a reservation for flight 435, calls the RM to make a reservation for flight 534, and then calls the RM to reserve a cars in St. Louis.

The goal in later steps is to support multiple RMs. For example, flights, cars and hotel rooms could be handled by separate RMs, each with their own private disk storage. There are more pieces to build before the WC can handle this functionality. When you get to that stage the system will look like this:

Since the ultimate goal is to handle multiple RMs, the workflow controller should be given the list of active RMs as command line arguments on startup.

6. Implement a Transaction Manager. The TM supports the following operations: start, commit, abort, and enlist. It coordinates each distributed transaction, i.e., each transaction that accesses multiple RMs.The TM is used as follows: whenever a request is made to an RM, the RM calls the TMís enlist method to tell the TM that it is involved in a transaction.The TM keeps track of which RMs are involved in which transactions. The WC forwards a start/commit/abort call by the client directly to the TM. All other calls by the client to the WC are forwarded to the appropriate RM.

At this stage, the TM needs no persistence. Since the TM exists behind the WC interface, no client interfaces are provided for the TM. The workflow controller needs to be given the hostname (probably localhost, if you are running on the same machine) of the TM, in addition to the list of active RMs. The RMs will be given the hostname of the TM on startup. The system now looks like this:

7. Run multiple RMs.For example, flight, car and room reservations could be handled by separate RMs. For each active transaction the TM maintains a list of which RMs are involved and implements one-phase commit. The WC decides which data requests and transactions go where. On a commit or abort request (which is forwarded to the TM),the TM calls the appropriate methods on all RMs involved in the transaction.

8. Add a list of committed transactions. Modify the TM to store a list of which transactions committed, which is needed for two phase commit below.

9. Implement two-phase commit. At this stage, you should ignore failure handling. That is, implement commit and abort under the assumption that messages never get lost or excessively delayed.

10. Two-phase commit with failure handling. Now worry about what happens on failure. In particular, handle cases where messages get lost and ensure the RMs can recover from being in the undecided state (in those cases where itís technically feasible).

11. You have finished the project. But feel free to add some enhancements, such as the following:

i.       Logging instead of shadowing. Shadowing is simple but has poor performance. Logging allows better performance, but is very tricky and is a lot more code than shadowing.

ii.     Garbage collect the TMís committed transaction list. The Transaction Manager keeps a list of committed transactions, so that a Resource Manager can connect to it after recovery and ask if a particular transaction was committed. Since storage is not infinite, implement a garbage control scheme for this list of committed transactions.

iii.                  Presumed abort for two-phase commit.

iv.      Explicit deadlock detection using a waits-for graph.

v.       Partition flights by flight number and do parameter-based routing in the workflow controller.




JavaTransaction
Interface ClientInterface

All Superinterfaces:

java.rmi.Remote


public interface ClientInterface

extends java.rmi.Remote

 

An interface for interaction with the clients.

This interface is already implemented by class MyWC in package WC.

Class MyWC will eventually be transformed into a real workflow controller. Currently, class MyWC only redirects calls to MyRM: the implementation of the resource manager. If you want clients to interact directly with your resource manager, make sure that your Resource Manager class implements this interface


Method Summary

 Void

abort(int context)
          Abort a transaction

 boolean

addCars(int context, java.lang.String location, int numCars, int price)
          Add cars to a location.

 boolean

addFlight(int context, int flight, int flightSeats, int flightPrice)
          Add seats to a flight This method will be used to create a new flight but if the flight already exists, seats will be added and the price overwritten

 boolean

addRooms(int context, java.lang.String location, int numRooms, int price)
          Add rooms to a location.

 void

commit(int context)
          Commit a transaction

 boolean

deleteCars(int context, java.lang.String location, int numCars)
          Delete cars.

 boolean

deleteCustomer(int context, int customer)
          Delete a customer

 boolean

deleteFlight(int context, int flight)
          Delete the entire flight.

 boolean

deleteRooms(int context, java.lang.String location, int numRooms)
          Delete rooms.

 int

newCustomer(int context)
          Create a customer return a unique customer ID

 int

queryCars(int context, java.lang.String location)
          Get the number of cars available.

 int

queryCarsPrice(int context, java.lang.String location)
          Get the cars price.

 int

queryCustomer(int context, int customer)
          Get the total amount of money the customer owes return total price of all reservations

 java.lang.String

queryCustomerInfo(int context, int customer)
          Get the bill for the customer, return a string representation of reservations

 int

queryFlight(int context, int flight)
          Get the number of seats available.

 int

queryFlightPrice(int context, int flight)
          Get the flight price.

 int

queryRooms(int context, java.lang.String location)
          Get the number of rooms available.

 int

queryRoomsPrice(int context, java.lang.String location)
          Get the room price.

 boolean

reserveCar(int context, int customer, java.lang.String location)
          Reserve a car

 boolean

reserveFlight(int context, int customer, int flight)
          Reserve a seat on a flight

 boolean

reserveItinerary(int customer, int[] flights, java.lang.String location, boolean bCar, boolean bRoom)
          Reserve an itinerary

 boolean

reserveRoom(int context, int customer, java.lang.String location)
          Reserve a room

 int

start()
          Start a transaction, return a unique transaction ID

 

Method Detail

start

public int start()

††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException

Start a transaction, return a unique transaction ID

Returns:

unique transaction ID

java.rmi.RemoteException


commit

public void commit(int context)

††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException

Commit a transaction

java.rmi.RemoteException


abort

public void abort(int context)

†††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException

Abort a transaction

java.rmi.RemoteException


addFlight

public boolean addFlight(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††† int flight,

†††††††††††††††††††††††† int flightSeats,

†††††††††††††††††††††††† int flightPrice)

††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††† ††††††††††JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Add seats to a flight This method will be used to create a new flight but if the flight already exists, seats will be added and the price overwritten

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


deleteFlight

public boolean deleteFlight(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† int flight)

†††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Delete the entire flight. deleteFlight implies whole deletion of the flight. all seats, all reservations. It's undecided what will happen if a customer has a reservation on this flight, but one possibility is to delete the customer as well. The other possibility is to return failure.

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


addCars

public boolean addCars(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location,

†††††††††††††††††††††† int numCars,

†††††††††††††††††††††† int price)

††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††† ††††††††††JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Add cars to a location. This should look a lot like addFlight, only keyed on a string location instead of a flight number.

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


deleteCars

public boolean deleteCars(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† int numCars)

†††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Delete cars.

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


addRooms

public boolean addRooms(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location,

††††††††††††††††††††††† int numRooms,

†††† †††††††††††††††††††int price)

†††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Add rooms to a location. This should look a lot like addFlight, only keyed on a string location instead of a flight number.

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


deleteRooms

public boolean deleteRooms(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† int numRooms)

††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††† †††††††††††††JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Delete rooms.

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryFlight

public int queryFlight(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††† int flight)

††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the number of seats available, return the number of seats available

Returns:

the number of seats available

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryFlightPrice

public int queryFlightPrice(int context,

††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††int flight)

†††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the flight price, return the price

Returns:

the price

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryRooms

public int queryRooms(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location)

†††††† ††††††††throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the number of rooms available, return the number of rooms available

Returns:

the number of rooms available

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryRoomsPrice

public int queryRoomsPrice(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location)

††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the room price.

Returns:

the price

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryCars

public int queryCars(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location)

††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††† ††††JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the number of cars available.

Returns:

the number of cars available

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryCarsPrice

public int queryCarsPrice(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location)

†††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the cars price.

Returns:

the price

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


newCustomer

public int newCustomer(int context)

††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException

Create a customer, return a unique customer ID

Returns:

a unique customer ID

java.rmi.RemoteException


deleteCustomer

public boolean deleteCustomer(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer)

†††††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Delete a customer

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


reserveFlight

public boolean reserveFlight(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer,

††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††int flight)

††††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Reserve a seat on a flight

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


reserveCar

public boolean reserveCar(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer,

††††††††††††††††††††† ††††java.lang.String location)

†††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Reserve a car

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


reserveRoom

public boolean reserveRoom(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location)

††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Reserve a room

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


reserveItinerary

public boolean reserveItinerary(int customer,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† int[] flights,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† java.lang.String location,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† boolean bCar,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† boolean bRoom)

†††††††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

†††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Reserve an itinerary

Returns:

success

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException


queryCustomer

public int queryCustomer(int context,

†††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer)

††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException

Get the total amount of money the customer owes, return total price of all reservations

Returns:

total price of reservations

java.rmi.RemoteException


queryCustomerInfo

public java.lang.String queryCustomerInfo(int context,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† int customer)

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† throws java.rmi.RemoteException,

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException,

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException

Get the bill for the customer, return a string representation of reservations

Returns:

a string representation of reservations

java.rmi.RemoteException

JavaTransaction.TransactionAbortedException

JavaTransaction.InvalidTransactionException