(* Programming Languages, Dan Grossman, CSE341 *)
(* Lecture 3: Local bindings, options, benefits of no mutation *)
(* let-expressions *)
fun silly1 (z : int) =
let val x = if z > 0 then z else 34
val y = x+9
in
if x > y then x*2 else y*y
end
fun silly2 () =
let val x = 1
in
(let val x = 2 in x+1 end) + (let val y = x+2 in y+1 end)
end
fun countup_from1 (x:int) =
let fun count (from:int, to:int) =
if from=to
then to::[] (* note: can also write [to] *)
else from :: count(from+1,to)
in
count(1,x)
end
fun countup_from1_better (x:int) =
let fun count (from:int) =
if from=x
then x::[]
else from :: count(from+1)
in
count 1
end
(* max, repeated computation, and options *)
(* badly named: evaluates to 0 on empty list *)
fun bad_max (xs : int list) =
if null xs
then 0
else if null (tl xs)
then hd xs
else if hd xs > bad_max(tl xs)
then hd xs
else bad_max(tl xs)
(* badly named: evaluates to 0 on empty list *)
fun good_max (xs : int list) =
if null xs
then 0
else if null (tl xs)
then hd xs
else
(* for style, could also use a let-binding for (hd xs) *)
let val tl_ans = good_max(tl xs)
in
if hd xs > tl_ans
then hd xs
else tl_ans
end
fun countup(from : int, to : int) = (* for testing our max functions *)
if from=to
then to::[]
else from :: countup(from+1,to)
fun countdown(from : int, to : int) = (* for testing our max functions *)
if from=to
then to::[]
else from :: countdown(from-1,to)
(* better: returns an int option *)
fun max1 (xs : int list) =
if null xs
then NONE
else
let val tl_ans = max1(tl xs)
in if isSome tl_ans andalso valOf tl_ans > hd xs
then tl_ans
else SOME (hd xs)
end
(* looks the same as max1 to clients;
implementation avoids valOf *)
fun max2 (xs : int list) =
if null xs
then NONE
else let (* fine to assume argument nonempty because it is local *)
fun max_nonempty (xs : int list) =
if null (tl xs) (* xs better not be [] *)
then hd xs
else let val tl_ans = max_nonempty(tl xs)
in
if hd xs > tl_ans
then hd xs
else tl_ans
end
in
SOME (max_nonempty xs)
end
(* benefits of no mutation: recall from lecture 2 *)
(* does not matter if returns an alias *)
fun sort_pair (pr : int*int) =
if (#1 pr) < (#2 pr)
then pr
else (#2 pr, #1 pr)
(* introduces sharing; don't care *)
fun append (xs : int list, ys : int list) =
if null xs
then ys
else hd(xs) :: append(tl(xs), ys)