(define fn '*) (define x 3) (define y (list '+ x 5)) (define z (list fn 10 y)) x => 3 y => '(+ 3 5) z => '(* 10 (+ 3 5)) (eval '(+ 6 6)) => 12 (eval y) => 8 (eval z) => 80An example of variables whose values are atoms:
(define a 'b) (define b 'c) (define c 50) a => 'b (eval a) => 'c (eval (eval a)) => 50Numbers just evaluate to themselves, so:
(eval (eval (eval a))) => 50 (eval (eval (eval (eval a)))) => 50
Quote suppresses evaluation; eval causes evaluation. They can cancel each other out.
(define x 3) x => 3 'x => 'x (eval 'x) => 3
The eval function used with just one argument evaluates that argument using the top-level bindings for names. You can also call it with an additional optional namespace argument, to cause evaluation in some different environment. See the eval section of the Racket Guide for details. The key point to remember for 341 is that evaluation takes place within some environment that determines the bindings for names.
A catch: when you run Racket in interactive mode, eval uses the exports of the racket module, so that basic functions like cons and + will be defined. If you use it directly (e.g. in a definition), however, the initial namespace starts out empty. You can fix this by supplying a namespace argument explicitly:
(eval '(+ 3 5) (make-base-namespace))
Here's an example of using namespaces in conjunction with defining and using a new variable:
(define ns (make-base-namespace)) (eval '(define squid 100) ns) (eval '(+ squid 8) ns)The last eval returns 108.
Notice that both calls to eval are using the same namespace -- if we used a different namespace the second time (for example by calling (make-base-namespace) again) squid wouldn't be defined.
(apply even? '(3)) => #f (apply + '(1 2 3 4)) => 10A useful programming trick is to use apply to define a function that takes a list of arguments, if you have available a function that arbitrary number of arguments. Example:
(define (sum s) (apply + s)) (sum '(1 2 3)) => 6
The interactive prompt in Racket (and Scheme) gives you a so-called read-eval-print-loop (REPL). Racket uses the read function to read in a Racket object, evaluates it using eval, and prints it using print. Then prompt again. You'll see the term read-eval-print-loop often in discussing programming language environments (not just for Racket).The functions eval and apply interact in a fundamental way in the Racket interpreter. If we are evaluating an ordinary function call (which is represented as a list, of course), we evaluate the first element of the list to get the functions, evaluate the remaining elements to get the arguments, and then use apply to apply the function to the arguments. (Notice that this is using call by value semantics, not lazy evaluation as in Haskell -- the arguments get evaluated before applying the function to them.)