## CSE 341 -- Scheme Cheat Sheet

Scheme is an extraordinarily simple language. It implements just a
few fundamental *concepts* that can be combined in interesting
and powerful ways to build up complex systems.
### The Read-Eval-Print loop

This is the heart of the scheme interpreter. The evaluator implements
the following algorithm:
**Eval(expr: symbolic-expression)**
- Is expr an atom? If it is self-evaluating, just return it. Otherwise (it is a name), return its value from the current environment
- Else, is the expression a list? If the first element is a special
form, do the rule for that form. Otherwise (it must be a function),
evaluate the first element of the list and apply it to the values of
the rest of the list.

### Special Forms: define, quote, lambda, cond, let/let*

;; Define is used to define new names. Names may refer to any value
;; (which may be data or a function)
(define x 10)
(define double (lambda (x) (* x 2)))
;; Quote is used to "quote" literal data (symbols or lists)
(quote hello) => hello
(quote (1 2 3)) => (1 2 3)
'(1 2 foo bar) => (1 2 foo bar) ; the tick-mark ' is syntactic sugar
;; Lambda is used to generate new functions
(lambda (x) (+ x 10) ; an anonymous function
(define plus10 (lambda (x) (+ x 10))) ; we've named the function now
;; Cond is a general conditional
(cond
((eq? 'foo 'bar) 'hello)
((= 10 20) 'goodbye)
(#t 'sorry)) => sorry
;; Let is used to declare/use temporary variables
(let
((x 10)
(y 20))
(+ x y))

### Built-in Types and Functions

Scheme supports numbers (integers, rationals, floats), characters, strings,
booleans, symbols, lists, and vectors. Below are some examples of
the built-in functions we can use on these types:
;; arithmetic: +, -, *, /
;; relational: <, <=, >, >=, =
(+ 1 2) => 3
(= 1 2) => #f ; use = for numbers
;; Equality and identity: eq? and equal?
(eq? 'hello 'goodbye) => #f ; eq? is an identity test
(eq? 'hello 'hello) => #t ; two values are eq if they are the same
(eq? '(1 2) '(1 2)) => #f ; object...
(define foo '(1 2))
(define foo bar)
(eq? foo bar) => #t
(equal? foo bar) => #t ; two values are equal if they look the same
(equal? foo '(1 2)) => #t
;; Lists: cons, car, and cdr
;; Making new lists, via quoting, cons, or list
(define foo '(1 2 3))
(define bar (cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 ()))))
(define baz (list 1 2 3))
;; Process lists with car, cdr, and null?
(null? '(1 2)) => #f
(null? ()) => #t
(car '(1 2)) => 1
(cdr '(1 2)) => (2)

### Iteration via recursion

;; Exponentiation function x^n
(define expt
(lambda (x n)
(cond ((= n 0) 1)
(#t (* x (expt x (- n 1)))))))
;; List length
(define length
(lambda (a-list)
(cond ((null? a-list) 0)
(#t (+ 1 (length (cdr a-list)))))))

### Higher order functions

Functions are first-class in Scheme, meaning we can pass them as
arguments to other functions.
;; takes two functions and an argument, returns (f (g x))
(define compose
(lambda (f g x)
(f (g x))))
(compose even? (lambda (x) (- x 1)) 10) => #f
;; takes a function and applies it to every element of a list
(define map
(lambda (f a-list)
(cond ((null? a-list) a-list)
(#t (cons (f (car a-list)) (map f (cdr a-list)))))))
(map even? '(1 2 3 4)) => (#f #t #f #t)

dugan@cs.washington.edu
(Last Update:
01/10/02
)