In this assignment, you will be implementing the directed labeled graph that you have written specifications, method stubs, and tests for in part 1 of this assignment. Unlike previous assignments, you must implement your Graph individually, following the specifications that you provided and incorporating any feedback that the staff have given you in previous assignments.

This assignment is the second part of a multi-part project, leading up to building a full application for getting directions to travel between two buildings on the UW campus.

Part 1: Choosing a representation

There are many ways to represent a graph. Here are a few:

  1. In two or three sentences, explain an advantage and a disadvantage of each representation (for example, in terms of runtime complexity, space complexity, or ease of implementation).
  2. In two to three sentences, describe the representation you chose and explain why you chose it. If you chose to use a different representation than one of the three we described above, be sure to list its advantages and disadvantages, too.

Create a new PDF file containing your answers to these questions, and submit it to Gradescope.

Part 2: Abstraction functions and representation invariants

Place a proper abstraction function and representation invariant for your Graph data type (and any other ADTs you create) in your source code. Remember that abstraction functions and representation invariants are implementation details and shouldn't be visible to clients of your Graph, so they should be in a regular comment, not a javadoc comment. Also implement a private checkRep() method, which will help in finding errors in your implementation.

Be sure to call your checkRep() wherever it is appropriate.

Part 3: Implementation

Provide an implementation of your graph data type. We ask that you start off by focusing on style. Once you have well designed code, you can think more about efficiency.

Eventually, your path-finding application will create and operate on very large sized graphs (thousands of nodes and tens of thousands of edges), so the scalability of your Graph implementation will be important. We recommend that your graph building and manipulating operations should be reasonably efficient.

As your implementation will likely use classes in the Java Collections Framework, you should understand the computational complexity of classes such as HashMap and ArrayList.

Part 4: Additional tests and changes to specifications

Once you've finished your implementation, you should think about whether or not new tests are needed in addition to those you wrote before you started coding. If so, you should add these to your test suite. In your PDF file from Part 1, put a description of any new tests you added and why you added them, or why you feel that your original tests alone are sufficient.

Did you make any changes to your specifications as you were implementing your Graph? If so, describe your changes and why you made them in your PDF file.

All of your answers in this part and other parts of the answers file should be brief and to the point. Short bullet lists are fine. Excessive verbosity or irrelevant remarks should not be included and will not receive full credit.

Write the Test Driver for the Graph

The staff-supplied testing driver GraphTestDriver in the graph/scriptTestRunner package should read input from standard input or a specified file using the format described under the Test Script File Format section and print its results to standard output. We have provided a skeleton implementation that takes care of parsing the input file format. Complete this file by adding code where specified by TODO comments to perform the appropriate operations on your ADT. Please be sure to use the PrintWriter stored in the output field in the tester to print the desired output (i.e., when implementing the test driver, use output.println() instead of System.out.println()).

Test timeouts

If you have a bug, your program might run forever. To avoid such problems, you must add, to each JUnit test class, these two import statements:

import org.junit.Rule;
import org.junit.rules.Timeout;
and this line within the class definition, at the top:
@Rule public Timeout globalTimeout = Timeout.seconds(10); // 10 seconds max per method tested


Abstraction function, representation invariant, and checkRep

Include an abstraction function, representation invariant, and private checkRep() method in all new classes you create that represent an ADT. If a class does not represent an ADT, place a comment that explicitly says so where the AF and RI would normally go. (For example, classes that contain only static methods and are never constructed usually do not represent an ADT — though you are unlikely to write any such classes for this assignment.) Please come to office hours if you feel unsure about what counts as an ADT and what doesn't.

Be conscious of how certain operations in checkRep(), particularly iterating over a large dataset, may affect the “big-O” runtime of your methods. If your program suffers performance problems in the next few homeworks, checkRep() is a good place to start looking for problems.

It is hard to balance the utility of the checkRep() method with how expensive it may be to run. A good approach is to call checkRep() as much as possible (generally at the beginning and end of every method), but to disable the checkRep() when you turn in your code so that our tests don't timeout. A good way to do this is to have a static final constant boolean in your class that is checked in your checkRep() such that it only runs when the constant variable is true. If your checkRep() function includes some expensive computations and some that are quick, you might want to selectively disable just the expensive ones. However be aware that when your code is evaluated, there will be a fairly short timeout on each staff test and an expensive checkRep() could easily cause tests to fail because do not terminate quickly enough. There will be enough time for the actual work needed, provided your code is straightforward and does not do excessive computation.

A warning about equals and hashCode

You may find it useful to define a class or classes that implement method equals. If you do that, be sure to also provide a consistent definition of method hashCode, otherwise your objects may behave strangely if used in containers like HashMaps. There is a good discussion of the issues involved in Effective Java (item 11 in the 3rd edition). Remember that many data structures (HashMap and HashSet, to name a couple) have requirements on implementing methods like hashCode and equals before you can properly store objects in them. Be sure to read the documentation for data structures you use and understand the requirements for using them.

How to Turn In Your Homework

Refer to the Assignment Submission Handout and closely follow the steps listed to submit your assignment. Do not forget to double check your submission as described in that handout - you are responsible for any issues if your code does not run when we try to grade it.

Use the tag name hw5-part2-final for this assignment. To verify your assignment on attu, use the gradle task: hw-graph:validate to check for common errors such as your code not compiling or not passing tests. However, validation is not guaranteed to catch all errors in your code.

Your TA should be able to find the following in your repository:

Don't forget to submit your written answers to Gradescope, in addition to submitting the code through GitLab.