CSE 190M Web Programming

Lecture 3: Finish Basic HTML, CSS Properties

Reading: 3.1 - 3.3

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2012 Marty Stepp, Jessica Miller, Victoria Kirst and Roy McElmurry IV. All rights reserved. Any redistribution, reproduction, transmission, or storage of part or all of the contents in any form is prohibited without the author's expressed written permission.

Valid HTML5 Valid CSS

HTML Character Entities

a way of representing any Unicode character within a web page

< >&lt; &gt;
é è ñ&eacute; &egrave; &ntilde;
™ ©&trade; &copy;
π δ Δ&pi; &delta; &Delta;
" &&quot; &amp;

HTML-encoding text

	&lt;a href=&quot;http://google.com/search?q=marty&amp;ie=utf-8&quot;&gt;
		Search Google for Marty

Exercise: Blog - Semantic Tags

Mark up our blog page from last lecture with the appropriate semantic tags. We already have appropriate tags for the content, what about the structure of the page itself.

3.1: Basic CSS

The bad way to produce styles

	<font face="Arial">Welcome to Greasy Joe's.</font>
	You will <b>never</b>, <i>ever</i>, <u>EVER</u> beat 
	<font size="+4" color="red">OUR</font> prices!

Recall: Basic CSS rule syntax

selector {
	property: value;
	property: value;
	property: value;
p {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  color: red;

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS): <link>

	<link href="filename" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" />
<link href="style.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" />

Exercise: Blog - CSS Sheet

Lets add a style sheet to our blog page!

CSS properties for colors

p {
	color: red;
	background-color: yellow;

This paragraph uses the style above.

property description
color color of the element's text
background-color color that will appear behind the element

Specifying colors

p { color: red; }
h2 { color: rgb(128, 0, 196); }
h4 { color: #FF8800; }

This paragraph uses the first style above.

This h2 uses the second style above.

This h4 uses the third style above.

CSS properties for fonts

property description
font-family which font will be used
font-size how large the letters will be drawn
font-style used to enable/disable italic style
font-weight used to enable/disable bold style
Complete list of font properties


p {
	font-family: Georgia;
h2 {
	font-family: "Courier New";

This paragraph uses the first style above.

This h2 uses the second style above.

More about font-family

p {
	font-family: Garamond, "Times New Roman", serif;

This paragraph uses the above style.

  • if the first font is not found on the user's computer, the next is tried
  • generally should specify similar fonts
  • placing a generic font name at the end of your font-family value ensures that every computer will use a valid font


p {
	font-size: 14pt;

This paragraph uses the style above.

  • pt specifies number of point, where a point is 1/72 of an inch onscreen
  • px specifies a number of pixels on the screen
  • em specifies number of m-widths, where 1 em is equal to the font's current size

font-weight, font-style

p {
	font-weight: bold;
	font-style: italic;

This paragraph uses the style above.

CSS properties for backgrounds

property description
background-color color to fill background
background-image image to place in background
background-position placement of bg image within element
background-repeat whether/how bg image should be repeated
background-attachment whether bg image scrolls with page
background shorthand to set all background properties

Exercise: Blog - Styles

Add the following styles to our blog page:
  • Make the blog entry h2's larger.
  • Change the color of the quotation text.
  • Change the background-color of the header and the h2's to the same color.

Grouping styles

p, h1, h2 {
	color: green;
h2 {
	background-color: yellow;

This paragraph uses the above style.

This h2 uses the above styles.

CSS comments: /* ... */

/* This is a comment.
  It can span many lines in the CSS file. */
p {
	color: red;
	background-color: aqua;

W3C CSS Validator

	<a href="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/check/referer">
		<img src="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/images/vcss"
			alt="Valid CSS!" /></a>
Valid CSS!

Exercise: Blog - Styles

  • Reduce the redundancy within our CSS using group selectors.
  • Add validator links to the bottom of our page.
  • Validate our blog page.

3.2: CSS Properties

CSS properties for text

property description
text-align alignment of text within its element
text-decoration decorations such as underlining
text-indent indents the first letter of each paragraph
text-shadow a colored shadow near an existing piece of text css3
gaps between the various portions of the text
Complete list of text properties


blockquote { text-align: justify; }
h2 { text-align: center; }

The Emperor's Quote

[TO LUKE SKYWALKER] The alliance... will die. As will your friends. Good, I can feel your anger. I am unarmed. Take your weapon. Strike me down with all of your hatred and your journey towards the dark side will be complete.


p {
	text-decoration: underline;

This paragraph uses the style above.

text-shadow css3

p {
	font-weight: bold;
	text-shadow: -2px 5px gray;

This paragraph uses the style above.

The list-style-type property

ol { list-style-type: lower-roman; }

Body styles

body {
	font-size: 16px;

Exercise: Blog - More Styles

  • Center align the header.
  • Apply a background-image to the whole page.
  • Make all text on the page use the Helvetica, or any other sans-serif font.
  • Give some text-shadow to the h1.
  • Experiment with differnt amounts of text-shadow using Chrome Dev Tools.

Styles that conflict

body { color: green; }
p, h1, h2 { color: blue; font-style: italic; }
h2 { color: red; background-color: yellow; }

This paragraph uses the first style above.

This heading uses both styles above.

Embedding style sheets: <style> (BAD!)

	<style type="text/css">
		p { font-family: sans-serif; color: red; }
		h2 { background-color: yellow; }

Inline styles: the style attribute (BAD!)

<p style="font-family: sans-serif; color: red;">
This is a paragraph</p>

Content vs. presentation

Cascading style sheets

Inheriting styles (explanation)

body { font-family: sans-serif; background-color: yellow; }
p { color: red; background-color: aqua; }
a { text-decoration: overline underline; }
h2 { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; }

This is a heading.

A styled paragraph. Previous slides are available on the web site.

  • a bulleted list

CSS pseudo-classes

a:link    { color: #FF0000; }      /* unvisited link */
a:visited { color: #00FF00; }      /* visited link */
a:hover   { color: #FF00FF; }      /* mouse over link */
class description
:active an activated or selected element
:focus an element that has the keyboard focus
:hover an element that has the mouse over it
:link a link that has not been visited
:visited a link that has already been visited
:first-letter the first letter of text inside an element
:first-line the first line of text inside an element
:first-child an element that is the first one to appear inside another
:nth-child(N) applies to every Nth child of a given parent

Exercise: Blog - Even More Styles

  • Align every other article to the right.
  • Give articles a different background-color.
  • Make the h1 use a monospace font such as Courier New.
  • Upload our blog to webster.