University of Washington, CSE 142

Lab 2: Expressions, Variables, and Loops

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2013 Stuart Reges and Marty Stepp.

lab document created by Marty Stepp, Stuart Reges and Whitaker Brand

Basic lab instructions

• Mouse over if you're not sure what they mean!
• Talk to your classmates for help.
• You may want to bring your textbook to future labs to look up syntax and examples.
• Stuck? Confused? Have a question? Ask a TA for help, or look at the book or past lecture slides.
• Complete as much of the lab as you can within the allotted time. You don't need to keep working on these exercises after you leave.
• Feel free to complete problems in any order.
• Make sure you've signed in on the sign-in sheet before you leave!

Today's lab

Goals for today:

• write and evaluate expressions to compute numeric values
• use variables to store results of a computation into memory
• trace and write `for` loops for repeating lines of code
• draw patterned figures of text using loops

Operators

Java has operators for the standard mathematical operations. Note that `+` works a little differently depending on the type of the operands.

Operator Description
`+` Addition for `int`s and `double`s, concatenation for `String`s
`-` Subtraction for `int`s and `double`s, doesn't compile for `String`s
`*` Multiplication for `int`s and `double`s, doesn't compile for `String`s
`/`

Division for `int`s and `double`s, doesn't compile for `String`s

Note that `int`s will follow integer (truncated) division rules

`%`

Modulus for `int`s and `double`s, doesn't compile for `String`s

Precedence

Generally speaking, Java tries to evaluate your expression from left to right. However, some operations happen before others. Java follows a set of rules of precedence that should be familiar from Algebra class, abbreviated PEMDAS.

Java doesn't have an exponent operator, but it does have the modulus (%) operator, so the mnemonic becomes:

PMMDAS

• P :: first, evaluate expressions surrounded by Parentheses ()
• MMD :: then, perform all Multiplication *, Modulus %, and Division / operations
• AS :: finally, go through and perform the Addition +, and Subtraction -

Expressions

Recall that Java has expressions to represent math and other computations. Expressions may use operators, which are evaluated according to rules of precedence. Every expression produces a value of a given type.

Type Description Expression Example Result
`int` integers (up to 231 - 1) `3 + 4 * 5` `23`
`double` real numbers (up to 10308) `3.0 / 2.0 + 4.1` `5.6`
`String` text characters `"hi" + (1 + 1) + "u"` `"hi2u"`

Exercise : Expressions (2.1)

Write the results of each of the following expressions. If you're stuck, ask a TA or neighbor.

 `12 / 5` `2` ` 12.0 / 5` `2.4` `12 / 5 + 8 / 4` `4` `3 * 4 + 15 / 2` `19` `42 % 5 + 3 % 16***` `5`
***Hint: Suppose you have 3 apples, and you distribute them among 16 people so that everyone gets the same number of (whole) apples. How many (whole) apples does each person get? How many apples do you have left over?

String Concatenation

The `+` operator does addition on numbers, but on `Strings`, it instead appends the two `String`s together.

``` System.out.println("Hello, World!"); // prints: Hello, World! System.out.println("Hello, " + "World!"); // prints: Hello, World! System.out.println("You " + "can" + " add" + "many" + " Strings together"); // prints: You can addmany Strings together System.out.println("Numbers " + 2 + "!"); // prints: Numbers 2!```

Note that only the whitespace inside the quotation marks is preserved.

Using quotation marks tells Java to keep track of every character from the opening " to the closing ", including the whitespaces like spaces, tabs, and newlines.

Outside the quotes, we're back in the Java program itself, where Java doesn't notice or care about the newline we've used to format the long line of source code.

String Concatenation with numbers

We do `String` concatenation instead of addition if either of the operands are `String`s.

We only add the numbers together if both of them are numbers (not `String`s). Java keeps track of the type of pieces of data in your program. It treats `"4"` (a `String`) differently than it treats `4` (a numerical value).

Having the distinction is crucial for some tasks: if the computer always treated numerical `String`s as numbers, then we wouldn't have a way to prepend an area code to the beginning of a phone number.

``` // All are using the + on a String -- all perform concatenation. System.out.println("1" + "2"); // prints 12 System.out.println("1" + 2); // same, prints 12 System.out.println(1 + "2"); // same, prints 12 // Since both operators here are numbers, we do addition: System.out.println(1 + 2); // does addition before printing -- prints 3 ```

Note: Even though the `+` operator works differently on `String`s, it still follows the same precedence rules.

Exercise : More expressions (2.1)

Write the results of each of the following expressions.

Some of these expressions include `String` concatenation. When the result of the expression evaluates to a `String`, put "quotation marks" around the result:

 `"x" + 2` `"x2"` `// Add the other quote to get the correct answer` `2 + 6 + "cse 142"` `"8cse 142"` `"cse 142" + 2 + 6` `"cse 14226"` `1 + 9 / 2 * 2.0` `9.0` `46 / 3 / 2.0 / 3 * 4/5` `2.0`

jGRASP Interactions Pane

• jGRASP has a useful feature called the Interactions Pane that allows you to type in Java expressions or statements one at a time and instantly see their results.
• To use it, run jGRASP and then click the "Interactions" tab near the bottom.

continued on the next slide...

Exercise : Using jGRASP Interactions Pane

In this exercise, you'll use the Interactions Pane to quickly discover the result of some expressions that would be difficult to evaluate by hand. Copy/paste each expression below into the Interactions Pane to evaluate it, then input the answer into this slide.

 `123 * 456 - 789` `55299` `3.14 + 1.59 * 2.65` `7.3535` `2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2` `1024` `2 + 2 + "xyz" + 3 + 3` `"4xyz33"`

(For the last expression, the Interactions Pane doesn't put `""` quotes around Strings when displaying results, so you must add those yourself if needed. For example, if the Interactions Pane gives you a result of `abc123`, it should be written here as `"abc123"`.)

Variables

Recall that you can use a variable to store the results of an expression in memory and use them later in the program.

```type name;                       // declare
name = value or expression;        // assign a value
...
type name = value or expression;   // declare-and-initialize together
```

Examples:

```double iPhonePrice;
iPhonePrice = 299.95;

int siblings = 3;
System.out.println("I have " + siblings + " brothers/sisters.");
```

Exercise : Variable declaration syntax

Which of the following choices is the correct syntax for declaring a real number variable named `grade` and initializing its value to `4.0`?

Exercise : Variable assignment syntax

Suppose you have a variable named `grade`, set to `1.6`:

```double grade = 1.6;   // uh-oh
```

Suppose later in the program's code, we want to change the value of `grade` to `4.0`. Which is the correct syntax to do this?

Variable Mutation

Assume that we have executed the following line of code:

```    int x = 5;
```

How could we add 6 to the value currently stored in `x`? A naive approach might be to try this line of code:

```    x + 6;
```

However, this line of code is an expression that results in a value: we have not altered the value of `x`.

```    // Remember, x is a variable that is holding the value 5
x + 6;      // evaluates to:
5 + 6;      // and then to:
11;

// But 11; isn't a statement that Java understands,
// so the compiler throws an error when it sees:  x + 6;
```

To increase the value of `x` by 6, we need to actually reassign the value of `x` to be the result of `x + 6`:

```    x = x + 6;       // evaluates to:
x = 5 + 6;       // and then to:
x = 11;
```

Here, we've used the value of `x` to calculate and store a new value into the variable `x`; in this case, 11.

Exercise : Variable mutation

Suppose you have a variable named `balance`, set to `463.23`:

```double balance = 463.23
```

Suppose later in the program's code, we want to add 5 to the account balance. Which is a correct statement to do this?

Exercise : `a`, `b`, and `c`

What are the values of `a`, `b`, and `c` after the following statements? Write your answers in the boxes on the right.

```int a = 5;
int b = 10;
int c = b;

a = a + 1;            // a? 6
b = b - 1;            // b? 9
c = c + a;            // c? 16
```

`print` vs `println`

There is a method called `System.out.print` that is similar to `System.out.println`.

They are different in that `print` doesn't add a "new line" (line break, '`\n`') character to the end of your output.

``` System.out.print("hello,"); System.out.print("helloooo"); // prints: hello,helloooo System.out.println("hello,"); System.out.println("helloooo"); // prints: // hello, // helloooo ```

Every time you call `System.out.println()` Java will add a "new line" character to your output.

`for` loops

A `for` loop repeats a group of statements a given number of times.

```for (initialization; test; update) {
statement(s) to repeat;
}
```

Example:

```for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
System.out.println("We're number one!");
}
System.out.println("/cheering");
```
Output:
```We're number one!
We're number one!
We're number one!
/cheering
```

`for` loops

 ```for (initialization; test; update) { statement(s) to repeat; } ``` ```for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) { System.out.println("We're number one!"); } System.out.println("/cheering");```

The `for` loop keeps executing the `println` as long as the test condition is met:

1. initialization :: `int i = 1;` :: start a counter at 1
2. test :: `i <= 3;` :: continue as long as the counter `i` is less than 3
3. execute the statements :: `{ System.out.println("We're number one!"); }`
4. update :: `i++` :: add 1 to the counter
5. go back to step 2 and check the test condition again: `i` is 1 bigger than it was last time through the loop

Once the test isn't true anymore, Java exits the for loop :: `System.out.println("/cheering");`

Exercise : `for` loop repeating

For each of the following for loops, write the output that would be produced by executing them.
 ```for(int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) { System.out.print("*"); }``` output: `***` ```for(int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) { System.out.print("!-!"); }``` output: `!-!!-!!-!!-!` ```// Note the number/String concatenation here in the print(). // i is an int variable that holds onto a numerical value. // // For which numerical values does i hold as the for loop executes? for(int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) { System.out.print(i + "~"); }``` output: `1~2~3~4~5~`

Exercise : Writing a `for` loop!

Write a Java class called `Stars` that, using a `for` loop, produces the following output:

`*****`

`********`

`Stars` Solution

One possible solution for the first part of `Stars`:

```public class Stars {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
}
}```
One possible solution for the second part of `Stars`:
```public class Stars {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 1; i <= 8; i++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
}
}```

Exercise : `print`, `println`, and `for` loops

Write a Java class called `PrintLoops` that produces the following output:

```>>>>
CSE142<<<<
```

To accomplish this:

1. first, write a `for` loop that prints out 4 "`>`" characters
2. next, write a blank line using the statement `System.out.println()` after the `for` loop
3. then, use `System.out.print` to print "CSE142"
4. finally, use another `for` loop to print out 4 "`<`" characters

`PrintLoops` Solution

One possible solution:

```public class PrintLoops {
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Step 1 -- print the > characters
for (int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) {
System.out.print(">");
}

// Step 2 -- print the blank line
System.out.println();

// Step 3 -- careful to use print here, not println
System.out.print("CSE142");

// Step 4 -- print the < characters:
for (int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) {
System.out.print("<");
}
}
}```

Checkpoint: Congratulations!

Nice job making it this far--labs are tough! Feel free to work with the person next to you for the remaining slides. Labs are a unique opportunity (unlike homework) to collaborate directly on ideas, and practice peer programming.

These next problems get a little more challenging as we explore earlier concepts further.

We put a lot of problems in here so that you have plenty to refer back to later when working on homework. Don't feel bad if you don't finish all of them--Brett can't finish them all in a 50 minute lab, either! :)

Forest the cat says good job!

Exercise : simple `for` loop

• Copy/paste the following code into jGRASP.
```public class Count2 {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for ( fill me in! ) {
System.out.println( fill me in! );
}
}
}
```
• Modify the code to produce the following output:
```2 times 1 = 2
2 times 2 = 4
2 times 3 = 6
2 times 4 = 8
```

Exercise : Verify solution in Practice-It!

Our Practice-It! system lets you solve Java problems online.

• Go to the Practice-It! web site.
• Create an account if you don't have one, and log in.
• Under the "CS1 Labs", "Lab 2" category, select the "simple for loop" problem. (direct link)
• Copy/paste your program from jGRASP into Practice-It, and submit. If it does not pass the test, modify your code and re-submit it.

Exercise : What's the output?

What output is produced by the following Java program? Write the output in the box on the right side.

 ```public class OddStuff { public static void main(String[] args) { int number = 32; for (int count = 1; count <= number; count++) { System.out.println(number); number = number / 2; } } } ``` Output: ```32 16 8 4 ```

Exercise : loopSquares

Write a `for` loop that produces the following output:

```1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100
```

Exercise : Writing a nested `for` loop

Write a Java program called `StarSquared` that uses nested for loops (one inner, one outer) to produce the following output:

```****
****
****
****```
Then, modify the program to produce the following output:
```**********
**********
**********
**********```

`StarSquared` Part 1 Solution

One possible solution for the first problem:

```public class StarSquared {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= 4; j++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
System.out.println();
}
}
}```

`StarSquared` Part 2 Solution

One possible solution for the second problem:

```public class StarSquared {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= 10; j++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
System.out.println();
}
}
}```

Exercise : `for` loop practice

• Copy and paste the following code into jGrasp.
```public class Triangle {
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int line = 1; line <= 4; line++) {
for (int stars = 1; stars <=  expression ; stars++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
System.out.println();
}
}
}
```

continued on the next slide...

Exercise - fill in a table

We want to produce the following output:

```*******
*****
***
*
```

Fill in the table below indicating how many stars appear on each line of output.

Line Stars
`1`
`7`
`2`
`5`
`3`
`3`
`4`
`1`

Exercise - complete the expression

We need an expression for the number of stars on each line of this form:

multiplier * line + constant

• First pick a multiplier. Looking at the table, the line numbers go up by 1 each time, and the number of stars changes by how much each time? -2
• Now pick a constant. Look at the table to see how many stars are on line 1. Given your multiplier, what constant do you need to use in the expression to get that number of stars for line 1? 9
• Using your multiplier and constant, fill in the expression for this line of code in jGRASP:
```for (int stars = 1; stars <=  expression ; stars++) {
```
Your program should now produce the correct output. You can verify with the Output Comparison Tool.

Exercise : Number lines, part 1

• Write some nested `for` loops to produce the following output:
```000111222333444555666777888999
000111222333444555666777888999
000111222333444555666777888999
```
• You can use the Output Comparison Tool to check your work.

Exercise : Number lines, part 2

• Modify the previous code to have it do something a little different:
```99999888887777766666555554444433333222221111100000
99999888887777766666555554444433333222221111100000
99999888887777766666555554444433333222221111100000
99999888887777766666555554444433333222221111100000
99999888887777766666555554444433333222221111100000
```
• You can use the Output Comparison Tool to check your work.

Exercise : SlashFigure

Write a Java program in a class named `SlashFigure` to produce the following output with nested `for` loops. Use a loop table if necessary to figure out the expressions.

```!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
\\!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!//
\\\\!!!!!!!!!!!!!!////
\\\\\\!!!!!!!!!!//////
\\\\\\\\!!!!!!////////
\\\\\\\\\\!!//////////
```
Line `\` `!` `/`
`1`
`0`
`22`
`0`
`2`
`2`
`18`
`2`
`3`
`4`
`14`
`4`
`4`
`6`
`10`
`6`
`5`
`8`
`6`
`8`
`6`
`10`
`2`
`10`
multiplier
`2`
`-4`
`2`
shift
`-2`
`26`
`-2`

Test your code in Practice-It! or the Output Comparison Tool.

Class Constants

Class constants are variables that are assigned and unchangeable throughout a program. They make it simpler to improve the flexibility of code.

Example:

```public class Birthday {

public static final int MY_AGE = 18;

public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("I am " + MY_AGE + "years old!");
}
}
```

Exercise : SlashFigure2

Make a table of "\", "!", and "/" counts in the size 4 figure. Then, write a for loop to produce the size 4 figure. Finally, compare the loop tests for the size 4 and 7 figures, and write a for loop with a class constant that will produce a figure of any SIZE.

size 4 size 7
```!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
\\!!!!!!!!!!//
\\\\!!!!!!////
\\\\\\!!//////
```
```!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
\\!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!//
\\\\!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!////
\\\\\\!!!!!!!!!!!!!!//////
\\\\\\\\!!!!!!!!!!////////
\\\\\\\\\\!!!!!!//////////
\\\\\\\\\\\\!!////////////
```

Test your code in the Output Comparison Tool or in PracticeIt!

If you finish them all...

If you finish all the exercises, try out our Practice-It web tool. It lets you solve Java problems from our Building Java Programs textbook.

You can view an exercise, type a solution, and submit it to see if you have solved it correctly.

Choose some problems from the book and try to solve them!